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Monday, September 7, 2009

Redox 1

Redox 2

Redox 3

Redox 4

Redox 5

Redox 6

Check List To Score A

Chapter 2: The Structure of the Atom

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. State the kinetic theory of matter.
    State one example to support the kinetic theory of matter


  1. What are atom, molecule and ion?

  2. What is melting point?

  3. Define proton number and nucleon number.

  4. State the meaning of isotopes.

  5. State the uses of isotopes such as carbon-14 and cobalt-60.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the melting process.

  2. Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the freezing process.

  3. A solid compound is heated until it converts into gas. Explain the changes in energy content, forces of attraction between the particles, and arrangement of particles.

  4. State the main subatomic particles of an atom.
    Compare and contrast the relative atomic mass and the relative charge of the subatomic particles of the atom.

  5. is the symbol of aluminium.
    (a) Determine the number of neutron of aluminium.
    (b) Draw the electron arrangement of aluminium.

C. Synthesis (Experiment)

  1. Solid Z has a melting point of 65oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the melting point of Z. Your answer should show how the melting point of Z is determined.

  2. Compound W has a freezing point of 82oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the freezing point of W.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. State the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale.

  2. Define a mole.

  3. State the meaning of molar mass

  4. State the meaning of molar volume of gas.

  5. State the meaning of empirical formula.

  6. State the meaning of molecular formula.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain why we couldn't determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide by heating copper powder in a crucible.

  2. Compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula using ethane as an example.

  3. Vinegar is a dilute ethanoic acid with a molecular formula of CH3COOH.
    (a) Find the empirical formula of ethanoic acid.
    (b) Find the percentage composition by mass of carbon in ethanoic acid.

  4. 3.6 g of carbon reacted with 0.8 g of hydrogen to form a compound.
    (a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound formed.
    (b) Given that the relative molecular mass of the compound is 88 g, find its molecular formula.

[Relative atomic mass: C ,12; H, 1]

  1. Hydrogen Gas is reacted with 20 g of hot copper(II) oxide powders to produce solid copper and water.
    (a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
    (b) Calculate the maximum mass of solid copper formed.
    [Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; O,16; H,1]

C. Synthesis (Experiment)

  1. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.
    Your answer should include all the precautions and calculations involved.
    [Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O,16]

Check List To Score A

Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. State the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale.

  2. Define a mole.

  3. State the meaning of molar mass

  4. State the meaning of molar volume of gas.

  5. State the meaning of empirical formula.

  6. State the meaning of molecular formula.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain why we couldn't determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide by heating copper powder in a crucible.

  2. Compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula using ethane as an example.

  3. Vinegar is a dilute ethanoic acid with a molecular formula of CH3COOH.
    (a) Find the empirical formula of ethanoic acid.
    (b) Find the percentage composition by mass of carbon in ethanoic acid.

  4. 3.6 g of carbon reacted with 0.8 g of hydrogen to form a compound.
    (a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound formed.
    (b) Given that the relative molecular mass of the compound is 88 g, find its molecular formula.

[Relative atomic mass: C ,12; H, 1]

  1. Hydrogen Gas is reacted with 20 g of hot copper(II) oxide powders to produce solid copper and water.
    (a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
    (b) Calculate the maximum mass of solid copper formed.
    [Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; O,16; H,1]

C. Synthesis (Experiment)

  1. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.
    Your answer should include all the precautions and calculations involved.
    [Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O,16]

Check List To Score A

Chapter 4: Periodic Table of Elements

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. State the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from its proton number.

  2. State the physical properties of Group 1.

  3. State the physical properties of Group 17.

  4. State the changes in the atomic size and electronegativity of elements across Period 3.

  5. State three special properties of transition elements?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. State the position of element in Periodic Table. Explain your answer.

  2. When across Period 3 from sodium to argon, the atomic size decreases. Explain why.

  3. When across Period 3 from sodium to argon, the electronegativity increases. Explain why.

  4. The reactivity of Group 1 increases when going down the group. Explain why.

  5. The reactivity of Group 17 decreases when going down the group. Explain why.

  6. Why helium gas is not reactive?

  7. X is an element from Group 1. X in burnt in oxygen and the product is dissolved in water. What is the property of the solution formed? Explain Why.

  8. Chlorine gas is dissolved in water.

    What can you observe if a piece of blue litmus paper is immersed into the solution formed? Explain why.


  9. W is an element from Group 1. Predict the chemical reaction of W with:
    1. water,
    2. Oxygen,
      State the observation and write the chemical equation involve.

C. Synthesis (Experiment)

  1. Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of elements in Group 1: lithium, sodium and potassium.

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of chlorine, bromine and iodine in the reaction with iron wool. State the observation and write the chemical equations involve in reactions.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. What is anion?

  2. What is cation?

  3. State two physical properties of ionic compounds.

  4. State two physical properties of covalent compounds.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain why sodium chloride can conduct electricity in aqueous state but cannot conduct electricity in solid state.

  2. Magnesium chloride and hydrogen chloride are two compounds of chlorine. At room condition, magnesium chloride exists as a solid but hydrogen chloride exists as a gas. Explain why.

  3. Describe the formation of ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl.

  4. By using example, describe the formation of covalent bond between element from Group 14 and element from Group 17.

C. Synthesis

  1. Draw electron arrangement of the compound formed from the following elements.
    1. Nitrogen and hydrogen,
    2. Carbon and oxygen,
    3. Magnesium and chlorine,
    4. Carbon and hydrogen,
    5. Hydrogen and chlorine,
    6. Sodium and oxygen.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. What is anion?

  2. What is cation?

  3. State two physical properties of ionic compounds.

  4. State two physical properties of covalent compounds.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain why sodium chloride can conduct electricity in aqueous state but cannot conduct electricity in solid state.

  2. Magnesium chloride and hydrogen chloride are two compounds of chlorine. At room condition, magnesium chloride exists as a solid but hydrogen chloride exists as a gas. Explain why.

  3. Describe the formation of ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl.

  4. By using example, describe the formation of covalent bond between element from Group 14 and element from Group 17.

C. Synthesis

  1. Draw electron arrangement of the compound formed from the following elements.
    1. Nitrogen and hydrogen,
    2. Carbon and oxygen,
    3. Magnesium and chlorine,
    4. Carbon and hydrogen,
    5. Hydrogen and chlorine,
    6. Sodium and oxygen.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 6: Electrochemistry

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. State the meaning of electrolyte.

  2. State the meaning of electrolysis.

  3. State three factors affecting electrolysis of an aqueous solution.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain why solution of hydrogen chloride in water can conduct electricity but solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene cannot conduct electricity?

  2. By using example, explain how the following factors can determine the selective discharge of ions at the electrodes.
    1. Types of electrodes,
    2. Concentration of the ions.

  3. Describe the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide.

  4. Describe the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis.

  5. Draw the structure of Daniell cell and explain how it can produce electricity.

  6. Draw the structure of a dry cell and explain how it can produce electricity.

C. Synthesis

  1. Describe a laboratory experiment to extract lead from lead(II) oxide by using electrolysis.

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to show that types of electrodes affecting the selective discharge of ions in electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution.

  3. You are given magnesium ribbon, copper plate, magnesium nitrate solution, copper(II) sulphate solution, connecting wires with crocodile clips, 250 cm3 beaker, voltmeter and porous pot.
    Construct a voltaic cell by using the above materials.
    Explain how the voltaic cell can produce electricity. Your answer must include observation and half equations for reaction at anode and cathode.

  4. Describe a laboratory experiment to construct the electrochemical series of magnesium, copper, zinc and lead.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 7: Acids and Bases and Chapter 8: Salts

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. State the meaning of acid and alkali.

  2. What is the meaning of strong acid and weak alkali?

  3. What is neutralisation?

  4. What is salt?

  5. What is precipitate reaction?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. The pH value of solution ammonia in water is 9 but the pH value of solution of ammonia in trichlomethane is 7. Explain why the pH values of the two solutions are different.

  2. 80 cm3 of distilled water is added to 20 cm3 of 2.0 moldm-3 solution of HCl. Find the molarity of the dilute solution.

  3. In a titration, 40 cm3 of 0.25 moldm-3 potassium hydroxide, KOH solution is needed to neutralise 20 cm3 of nitric acid, HNO3. Calculate the molarity of the nitric acid, HNO3.


  4. Given dilute nitric acid and dilute sulphuric acid have the same concentration of 0.5 moldm-3. In a neutralisation experiment, 20 cm3 of nitric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution but only 10 cm3 of sulphuric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. Explain why.

C. Synthesis

  1. Describe a chemical test to determine a given solution is an acid solution.

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide by using titration process. You are given 0.2 moldm-3 of dilute sulphuric acid, phenolphthalein, burette, pipette and conical flask.

  3. You are given solid sodium chloride. Describe how to prepare sodium chloride solution of 0.2 moldm-3 in laboratory by using 250 cm3 volumetric flask.

  4. Describe the preparation of zinc sulphate .

  5. Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride.

  6. Describe the preparation of potassium nitrate.

  7. Solid W is a salt. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the presence of zinc ions and nitrate ions in the salt?

  8. Solid X is a metal carbonate. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm that X consists of carbonate ions besides heating.
    .
  9. You are given four test tubes filled with solution consist of zinc ions, lead(II) ions, aluminium ions and magnesium ions respectively. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the ion that present in each test tube.

  10. You are given potassium chloride solution, lead(II) oxide powder and dilute nitric acid.
    Describe how you would prepare lead(II) chloride salt from the given materials.

  11. You are given dilute sulphuric acid, copper(II) nitrate solution and sodium carbonate solution. Describe how you would prepare copper(II) sulphate salt from the given materials.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 9: Manufactured Substance in Industry

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. What is the meaning of alloy?
    State the aims of making alloys.


  1. What is the meaning of composite materials?
    State the components of the following composite materials:
    1. Reinforced concrete,
    2. Superconductor,
    3. Fibre optic,
    4. Fibre glass,
    5. Photochromic glass.


  2. State the catalyst, temperature and pressure of the following process:
    1. (a) Contact process
    2. (b) Haber process


  3. What is the meaning of polymers?
    Name the monomer of polythene and polyvinyl chloride.

  4. State four types of glass and their compositions. List the uses of each glass.

  5. What is ceramics? State the properties and list the uses of ceramics.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis


  1. Bronze is an alloy consists of copper and tin. Explain why bronze is harder than copper.

  2. Explain how acid rain is formed.
    Describe how acid rain causes environmental pollution.

  3. Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
    Write all the chemical equations involve.

  4. Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of ammonia gas.
    Write all the chemical equations involve.

C. Synthesis


  1. Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ammonium sulphate (ammonium fertiliser)

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the hardness of brass and copper.



Check List To Score A

Chapter 10: Rate of Reaction

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. What is rate of reaction?

  2. What is stated in the collision theory?

  3. What is activation energy?

  4. What is effective collision?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain how surface area (size of reactant) can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory.

  2. Explain how temperature can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory.

  3. Explain how catalyst can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory.

  4. Explain why hydrochloric acid of 2.0 moldm-3 is reacted faster with zinc compare to hydrochloric acid of 0.5 moldm-3 .

C. Synthesis

  1. Hypothesis: The smaller the size of reactant, the higher the rate of reaction.
    Describe a laboratory experiment to confirm the hypothesis by using the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to show that the presence of catalyst will increase the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Describe a laboratory experiment to show that an increase in temperature will increase the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid.


Check List To Score A

Chapter 11: Carbon compounds

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. What is homologous series?

  2. What is saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon? State an example of each of them.

  3. Explain what is isomers and isomerism by using butane as an example.

  4. What is polimer? State an example of polymer and its monomer.

  5. What are saturated and unsaturated fats?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain what is isomers and isomerism by using butane.

  2. Explain why ethene gas can decolourises the acidified potassium mangante(II) solution but ethane can not decolourises acidified potassium mangante(II) solution.

  3. Explain why both hexane and hexane have six carbon atoms but hexene burns with a more sooty flame.

  4. Pentane and propane are members from alkane family. Explain why the melting point of pentane is higher than propane.

  5. Propanol and propanoic acid are dissolved in water. It is found that propanol solution is a neutral but propanoic acid is an acid solution.

  6. Explain the coagulation process of latex.

  7. Explain how to prevent coagulation of latex.

C. Synthesis

  1. Describe a test to differential hexene and hexane.

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethane gas from ethanol.

  3. Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethanoic acid gas from ethanol.

  4. Ethylpropanoat is a product from reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid.
    (a) State two physical properties of ethylpropanoat.
    (b) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare Ethylpropanoat. Your answer must include the
    drawing of the setup-apparatus and the chemical equation involve.

  5. Explain how to prepare propanoic acid from propene.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 12: Thermochemistry

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. What is exothermic reaction and endothermic reaction?
    State an example for each reaction.

  2. What is heat of precipitation?

  3. What is heat of displacement?

  4. What is heat of neutralisation?

  5. What is heat of combustion?

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Explain how exothermic reaction and endothermic are formed based on energy change during formation and breaking of chemical bonds.

  2. Explain why the heat of combustion of butanol is higher than ethanol.

  3. Explain why the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis is a constant,
    that is -57kJmol-1?

  4. Explain why the heat of neutralisation between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide is less than
    -57kJmol-1?

  5. 50 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid. The temperature increases t oC.
    1. If 100 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature.

    2. If 50 cm3 of 1 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 1 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature.

    3. If 50 cm3 of 4 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 4 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid, predict the increase in temperature.

C. Synthesis

  1. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of displacement of copper by zinc.

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis.

  3. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of methanol.

  4. "The higher the number of carbon atoms per molecule, the higher is the heat of combustion"
    Describe a laboratory experiment to prove that the above statement is true by using methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol.

Check List To Score A

Chapter 13: Chemicals for Consumers

A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)

Check

  1. What is soap?

  2. What is saponification process?

  3. What is detergent?

  4. State the functions of each of the following additives in detergent.
    1. Whitening agent(example: sodium perborate)
    2. Optical whitener(fluorescent dyes)
    3. Biological enzyme (Example: amylases, lipases, proteases and cellulases)
    4. Fragrance

  5. What is hard water?

  6. State the function of each of the following food additives:
    1. Preservatives ( Sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate)
    2. Antioxidants (Ascorbic acid)
    3. Flavourings (Monosodium glutamate (MSG), Aspartame)
    4. Stabilisers
    5. Thickeners


  1. State the functions of the following modern medicines.
    1. Analgesics ( Aspirin, Paracetamol, Codeine)
    2. Antibiotics ( Penicilin, Streptomycin)
    3. Psychotherapeutic medicine ( Stimulant, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic)


  2. State the side effects of paracetamol and aspirin.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis

  1. Describe the cleansing action of soap.

  2. Explain why the cleansing action of a detergent is more effective than a soap in hard water.

C. Synthesis

  1. Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare soap from palm oil using the saponification process.

  2. Describe a laboratory experiment to investigate the cleansing action of a soap and a detergent in hard water.


Periodic Table